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smonad - a functional library

Project Description

Introduction

What?

Monads in python, with some helpful functions.

This package is a fork of Philip Xu’s excellent monad package. Philip’s package has been modified to be more approachable for Python developers. It takes some inspiration from the excellent lambda library for Java and Scala’s Try monad

Python developers may find the Try monad particularly useful as it allows you to treat errors as values.

Why?

Python does not have a good builtin conventions for processing multiple operations in batch. Further, this library’s authors found excessive reliance on classes can lead to less composable code.

This library borrows some ideas from Haskell and other functional programming language to better handle the aforementioned use case. While this library does have ‘monad’ in its name, you do not need to know anything about the concept of monads in order to use this library.

Treating Errors as Values

Python does not have a built-in convention for treating errors as values other than try/except.

smonad introduces the Failure/Success convention of wrapping failed or successful results in a container class.

The utility method attempt executes a callable and wraps a raised exception in a Failure class. If an exception was not raised, a Success is returned

>>> from smonad.actions import attempt
>>> result = attempt(lambda: 1 / 0)
>>> print result
Failure(ZeroDivisionError('integer division or modulo by zero',))
>>> exc = result.value
>>> exc
ZeroDivisionError('integer division or modulo by zero',)
>>> # the following would fail as it does not catch the correct exception
>>> # result = attempt(lambda: 1 / 0, exception=ValueError)
>>> result = attempt(lambda: 1 / 1)
>>> print result
Success(1)
>>> result.value
1

You can instantiate Failure or Success inside your own code to indicate whether a computation was successful.

Here is an example script to create AWS instances that uses Failure/Success to propagate failures to the highest possible level.

from collections import namedtuple
from smonad.types.ftry import Success, Failure
from smonad.utils import failed
import sys
import os


CloudInstance = namedtuple('CloudInstance', ['name', 'provider', 'instance_type'])

jenkins = CloudInstance(name='jenkins', provider='aws', instance_type='m3.medium')

git = CloudInstance(name='git', provider='aws', instance_type='m3.xlarge')

vault = CloudInstance(name='vault', provider='aws', instance_type='m3.xlarge')


class TryAgainLaterError(Exception):
    pass


def aws_create_instance(instance):
    if instance.name == 'jenkins':
        raise TryAgainLaterError("Can't create jenkins server right now")

    return instance


def create_cloud_instance(instance):
    try:
        created_instance = aws_create_instance(instance)
        return Success(created_instance)
    except TryAgainLaterError as e:
        return Failure(instance)


def make_my_servers():
    server_results = []
    for server in [jenkins, git, vault]:
        server_results.append(create_cloud_instance(server))

    # if there are any errors, let's retry once more
    failed_servers = filter(lambda r: failed(r), server_results)
    retry_results = []
    for exc, instance in failed_servers:
        retry_results.append(aws_create_instance(instance))

    if any([failed(i) for i in retry_results]):
        failed_servers = ",".join([i.value.name for i in retry_results if failed(i)])
        return Failure("Unable to create servers: %s" % failed_servers)

    return Success("Successfully created all servers")


if __name__ == "__main__":
    result = make_my_servers()
    if failed(result):
        sys.stderr.write("Error: %s\n" % result.value)
        os.sys.exit(1)
    else:
        print result.value

We can simplify the make_my_servers function by taking advantage of the recover method of Try. recover applies a recovery function to instances of Failure. It returns Success(V) unchanged.

def make_my_servers():
    server_results = []
    for server in [jenkins, git, vault]:
        server_results.append(create_cloud_instance(server))


    # The recover only applies ``create_cloud_instance`` to Failures, it returns the Success value otherwise
    server_results = map(lambda s: s.recover(create_cloud_instance), server_results)

    if any([failed(s) for s in server_results]):
        failed_servers = ",".join([i.value.name for i in server_results if failed(i)])
        return Failure("Unable to create servers: %s" % failed_servers)

    return Success("Successfully created all servers")

Composing Functions

>>> from smonad.decorators import maybe
>>> parse_int = maybe(int)
>>> parse_int(42)
Just(42)
>>> parse_int('42')
Just(42)
>>> parse_int('42.2')
Nothing

>>> parse_float = maybe(float)
>>> parse_float('42.2')
Just(42.2)

>>> from smonad.actions import tryout
>>> parse_number = tryout(parse_int, parse_float)
>>> tokens = [2, '0', '4', 'eight', '10.0']
>>> [parse_number(token) for token in tokens]
[Just(2), Just(0), Just(4), Nothing, Just(10.0)]

>>> @maybe
... def reciprocal(n):
...     return 1. / n
>>> reciprocal(2)
Just(0.5)
>>> reciprocal(0)
Nothing

>>> process = parse_number >> reciprocal
>>> process('4')
Just(0.25)
>>> process('0')
Nothing
>>> [process(token) for token in tokens]
[Just(0.5), Nothing, Just(0.25), Nothing, Just(0.1)]
>>> [parse_number(token) >> reciprocal for token in tokens]
[Just(0.5), Nothing, Just(0.25), Nothing, Just(0.1)]
>>> [parse_number(token) >> reciprocal >> reciprocal for token in tokens]
[Just(2.0), Nothing, Just(4.0), Nothing, Just(10.0)]

Requirements

  • CPython >= 2.7

Installation

Install from PyPI:

pip install smonad

Install from source, download source package, decompress, then cd into source directory, run:

make install

License

BSD New, see LICENSE for details.

Release History

Release History

This version
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0.6

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0.5

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0.4

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0.3

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