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Tool to create AMIs with Ansible

Project Description
bossimage
=========

|Build Status|

Create a role with ``ansible-galaxy`` and drop a ``.boss.yml`` into the
directory it created. Use ``bi run`` to create an EC2 instance and run
the Ansible role on it. Modify the role and rerun as necessary until
satisfied. Use ``bi image`` to bake it into an image. Clean up with
``bi delete``.

``bossimage`` is inspired by both `Packer <https://www.packer.io/>`__
and `Test Kitchen <http://kitchen.ci/>`__, but much simpler than either.
If you use both Ansible and AWS, you may find it useful.

``bossimage`` has been tested on both Linux and Windows targets in EC2.

Installation
============

::

git clone https://github.com/cloudboss/bossimage.git
cd bossimage
pip install -r requirements.txt
pip install .

Usage
=====

Quick start
-----------

After installation, the ``bi`` command is provided, which has four
subcommands: ``list``, ``run``, ``image``, and ``delete``.

AWS region and credentials must be set.

::

export AWS_PROFILE=uhuru
export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=us-west-1

ansible-galaxy
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Create an Ansible role.

::

$ ansible-galaxy init test-role
$ cd test-role
$ cat > .boss.yml <<EOF
platforms:
- name: amz-2015092
instance_type: t2.micro
source_ami: amzn-ami-hvm-2015.09.2.x86_64-gp2
EOF

Modify the role to add tasks, handlers, and vars as desired.

list
^^^^

List instances available to be built that are configured in .boss.yml:

::

$ bi list
amz-2015092-default

run
^^^

Build an EC2 instance and run the Ansible role on it:

::

$ bi run amz-2015092-default
Created instance i-00000000
Instance is running
Waiting for connection to 54.xxx.xxx.xxx:22 ... ok

PLAY ***************************************************************************

TASK [setup] *******************************************************************
ok: [54.xxx.xxx.xxx]

TASK [test-role : add package httpd] *******************************************
changed: [54.xxx.xxx.xxx]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
54.xxx.xxx.xxx : ok=1 changed=1 unreachable=0 failed=0

More verbose output may be provided with ``-v``, up to four times. This
is passed through to ``ansible-playbook``.

::

$ bi run amz-2015092-default -vvvv

image
^^^^^

Bake an image.

::

$ bi image amz-2015092-default
Created image ami-00000000
Waiting for image to be available ... ok
Image is available

delete
^^^^^^

Clean up the EC2 instance and generated keypair.

::

$ bi delete amz-2015092-default

More detail
-----------

Authenticating with AWS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

``bossimage`` uses standard AWS SDK environment variables for
authentication, which are described in the `boto3
documentation <http://boto3.readthedocs.org/en/latest/guide/configuration.html#configuration>`__.

The simplest way to authenticate if you are not running ``bossimage`` on
an EC2 instance is to configure ``~/.aws/credentials`` with a
`profile <http://docs.aws.amazon.com/cli/latest/userguide/cli-chap-getting-started.html#cli-multiple-profiles>`__
and pass its name in the environment variable ``AWS_PROFILE``.

If you are running ``bossimage`` on an EC2 instance, you may assign the
instance an `IAM
role <http://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/id_roles_use_switch-role-ec2_instance-profiles.html>`__
upon creation, and then you do not need to pass any credentials. The IAM
role should have the policy shown below.

::

{
"Version": "2012-10-17",
"Statement": [
{
"Effect": "Allow",
"Action": [
"ec2:CreateKeyPair",
"ec2:DeleteKeyPair",
"ec2:DescribeImages",
"ec2:CreateImage",
"ec2:DescribeInstances",
"ec2:RunInstances",
"ec2:TerminateInstances"
],
"Resource": "*"
}
]
}

Region
~~~~~~

You must set the AWS region you are running in. To do this, set the
``AWS_DEFAULT_REGION`` environment variable.

Configuring an Ansible role with a ``.boss.yml``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

``bossimage`` must always be run from the root directory of an Ansible
role, and is configured by a file called ``.boss.yml`` in that
directory. The configuration is similar to the ``.kitchen.yml`` file
used by Test Kitchen.

Example:

::

driver:
instance_type: t2.micro

platforms:
- name: ubuntu-16.04
source_ami: ami-301f6f50
username: ubuntu
associate_public_ip_address: false
subnet: professor
security_groups: [mafikizolo]
- name: amz-2015092
source_ami: amzn-ami-hvm-2015.09.2.x86_64-gp2
instance_type: m3.medium
block_device_mappings:
- device_name: /dev/sdf
ebs:
volume_size: 100
volume_type: gp2
delete_on_termination: true

profiles:
- name: default
- name: httpd
extra_vars:
packages:
- httpd

There are three sections in the file: ``driver``, ``platforms``, and
``profiles``.

driver
^^^^^^

This section is optional, and is where default parameters are set. These
are the available keys:

- ``source_ami`` - type: *string*, required

AMI to build from, may be either a name or ID. It is recommended to use
names, because many AMIs are built in multiple regions and the IDs
change between regions while the names generally do not.

- ``instance_type`` - type: *string*, required

EC2 `instance type <http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/>`__, e.g.
``t2.micro``, ``m3.medium``.

- ``associate_public_ip_address`` - type: *bool*, default: ``true``

If ``true``, a public IP address will be assigned to the EC2 instance.

- ``subnet`` - type: *string*, optional

Subnet to place EC2 instance into. As with ``source_ami``, this may be a
name or ID. If not given, the instance will be placed into a subnet in
the default VPC.

- ``security_groups`` - type: *list* of *string*, optional

List of security groups to assign to the EC2 instance. May be names or
IDs. If not given, the instance will be assigned the default security
group of the default VPC.

- ``connection`` - type: *string*, one of ``ssh`` or ``winrm``,
default: ``ssh``

Connection type for Ansible to use.

- ``username`` - type: *string*, default: ``ec2-user``

Username to connect over ssh or winrm.

- ``become`` - type: *boolean*, default: ``true``

If ``true``, then Ansible will use sudo. This should be ``false`` if
``connection`` is ``winrm``.

- ``ami_name`` - type: *string*, default:
``%(role)s-%(profile)s-%(version)s-%(platform)s``

This is a Python formatted string to set the name of the image when
using ``bi image``.

Variables that may be put into the formatted string are:

- ``role``: Name of Ansible role
- ``version``: Role version. Because Ansible does not provide a way to
set a version in the role metadata, this is expected to be placed in
a file ``.role-version`` in the root directory of the role. If the
``.role-version`` file is not found, then ``version`` will be the
string ``unset``.
- ``platform``: Name of platform used from ``.boss.yml``
- ``profile``: Name of profile used from ``.boss.yml``
- Perhaps less useful but nonetheless available are any of the
configuration values for the instance that may be found in the
platform, such as ``source_ami``, ``instance_type``, ``connection``,
etc.

Of course, ``ami_name`` may also be a string used verbatim without any
interpolated variables in it.

- ``port`` - type: *int*, default: ``22``

Port for Ansible to use when connecting. If ``connection`` is ``winrm``,
then this should be ``5985``.

- ``block_device_mappings`` - type: *list* of *map*, default: ``[]``

Devices to be attached to the EC2 instance that will be part of a baked
image.

Each item in the list is a map as described in the
``BlockDeviceMappings`` property passed to the `boto3 create\_instances
operation <http://boto3.readthedocs.org/en/latest/reference/services/ec2.html#EC2.ServiceResource.create_instances>`__.
The only difference is that in ``.boss.yml``, "CamelCase" properties
should be converted to "snake\_case".

Example:

``block_device_mappings: - device_name: /dev/sdf ebs: volume_size: 100 volume_type: gp2 delete_on_termination: true``

platforms
^^^^^^^^^

This is the only section that is required. It contains a list of maps
for each configured platform. Each map has one required key, ``name``.
Everything else is the same as for ``driver``, but overrides anything
that may be set in that section.

The most minimal ``platforms`` section just contains one platform with a
name, with all other parameters inherited from ``driver``. This assumes
there is a ``driver`` section in the file with required parameters
already set.

::

platforms:
- name: ubuntu-15.10

In general, it makes the most sense for ``source_ami`` to go into
``platforms`` rather than ``drivers``, as that is the one parameter that
really determines the platform.

profiles
^^^^^^^^

This section is also a list of maps, with each map requiring a ``name``
key. If this section is not provided, there will be an implicit
``default`` profile created. In addition to the name, there is an
optional ``extra_vars`` key, which is an arbitrary map which will be
passed to Ansible in its ``--extra-vars`` argument.

::

profiles:
- name: default
extra_vars:
users:
- joe
- john
packages:
- nc
- strace
- tcpdump

Rationale
=========

All I want is to spin up an EC2 instance in AWS, run
`Ansible <http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/index.html>`__ on it, and bake
it into an image if Ansible ran successfully. Packer does more and less
than I want, Test Kitchen does more and less than I want, and both of
them overlap in functionality.

Comparison with Packer
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Packer is a tool for creating VM and Docker images for a multitude of
cloud providers and for local use.

``bossimage`` creates VM images, but only for AWS.

Comparison with Test Kitchen
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Test Kitchen is a tool for testing Chef cookbooks, but can be used to
test Ansible and other configuration management tools using third party
plugins.

``bossimage`` only runs Ansible, specifically Ansible
`roles <http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/playbooks_roles.html>`__, and
only in "push" mode.

Workflow with Test Kitchen and Packer
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Using Test Kitchen and Packer together, my workflow went something like:

- Install Ansible
- Install Test Kitchen
- Install Test Kitchen EC2 driver
- Install Test Kitchen Ansible plugin
- Install Packer
- Develop, test, and iterate with Ansible and Test Kitchen
- Bake image with Packer

To test Ansible, I would create a role using ``ansible-galaxy`` and drop
a ``.kitchen.yml`` configuration into the root of my role's directory.
Then I could run ``kitchen converge`` to get an EC2 instance created in
AWS, have Ansible installed on it, and then have my role run on the
instance. Install Ansible on the instance, you say? That's right. Even
though one of the primary appeals of Ansible is that it requires no
installation on the target, the plugin for Test Kitchen installs Ansible
on the target and then runs Ansible in local mode there. Although there
are certainly use cases for running Ansible that way, I don't consider
creating VM images to be one of the better ones.

Now for the second half of the process. If Test Kitchen successfully ran
Ansible and my test suite, then I was ready to bake an image. What I
would do is add an ``ami/`` directory to my roles, containing JSON
configurations for Packer to use. I could put any number of JSON
configurations in this directory, depending on what different flavors of
image I might want baked. Then I would run Packer to create yet another
EC2 instance, install Ansible on it, and run Ansible (in local mode). If
Ansible ran successfully, Packer would bake it into an image. If Ansible
failed at any point, Packer would delete the EC2 instance and I would
have to start over again.

It should be obvious that this is less than optimal, as I needed two
separate tools with their own configuration formats that both created
EC2 instances and ran Ansible on them, each with different end goals. To
try to make this process easier, I created a
`Gradle <http://gradle.org/>`__ build that would automatically generate
tasks for each Packer configuration that went into the ``ami/``
directory, and also generated tasks for Test Kitchen, so we could run
something like ``gradle test ami clean`` in a Jenkins job and get the
whole process to run from a single command. While it did work, it was
agonizingly slow.

All I could think to myself was: there has got to be a better way!

Workflow with bossimage
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Here is the new workflow:

- Install bossimage (Ansible is installed as a dependency)
- Develop, test, and iterate with Ansible and bossimage
- Bake image with bossimage

.. |Build Status| image:: https://travis-ci.org/cloudboss/bossimage.svg?branch=master
:target: https://travis-ci.org/cloudboss/bossimage
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